New Report: Top 20 Principles From Psychology for PreK–12 Teaching and Learning

There is a new report published by the APA discussing a top 20 principles from psychology for PreK–12 teaching and learning. Some of the principles will be quite different from what some teachers (and teacher trainers) actually think, luckily most of the principles are quite well-known for a lot of teachers..

The 20 principles in short, download the report here:

PRINCIPLE 1 Students’ beliefs or perceptions about intelligence and ability affect their cognitive functioning and learning.

PRINCIPLE 2 What students already know affects their learning.

PRINCIPLE 3 Students’ cognitive development and learning are not limited by general stages of development.

PRINCIPLE 4 Learning is based on context, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated.

PRINCIPLE 5 Acquiring long-term knowledge and skill is largely dependent on practice.

PRINCIPLE 6 Clear, explanatory, and timely feedback to students is important for learning.

PRINCIPLE 7 Students’ self-regulation assists learning, and self-regulatory skills can be taught.

PRINCIPLE 8 Student creativity can be fostered.

PRINCIPLE 9 Students tend to enjoy learning and perform better when they are more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated to achieve.

PRINCIPLE 10 Students persist in the face of challenging tasks and process information more deeply when they adopt mastery goals rather than performance goals.

PRINCIPLE 11 Teachers’ expectations about their students affect students’ opportunities to learn, their motivation, and their learning outcomes.

PRINCIPLE 12 Setting goals that are short term (proximal), specific, and moderately challenging enhances motivation more than establishing goals that are long term (distal), general, and overly challenging.

PRINCIPLE 13 Learning is situated within multiple social contexts.

PRINCIPLE 14 Interpersonal relationships and communication are critical to both the teaching– learning process and the social-emotional development of students.

PRINCIPLE 15 Emotional well-being influences educational performance, learning, and development.

PRINCIPLE 16 Expectations for classroom conduct and social interaction are learned and can be taught using proven principles of behavior and effective classroom instruction.

PRINCIPLE 17 Effective classroom management is based on (a) setting and communicating high expectations, (b) consistently nurturing positive relationships, and (c) providing a high level of student support. PRINCIPLE 18 Formative and summative assessments are both important and useful but require different approaches and interpretations.

PRINCIPLE 19 Students’ skills, knowledge, and abilities are best measured with assessment processes grounded in psychological science with well-defined standards for quality and fairness.

PRINCIPLE 20 Making sense of assessment data depends on clear, appropriate, and fair interpretation.

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