New study challenges – again – ‘mid-life crisis’ theory

I first learned from the book 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology by Lilienfeld et al. that although the concept is very popular,  mid-life crisis as such is a myth. I’ve said this over and over again when people asked me why I wanted to drive a convertible. A 25-year longitudinal study confirms that this mid life crisis theory probably is wrong as it suggests the curve in happiness from early adulthood to midlife goes up, not down. Well, not in Canada that is.

From the press release:

The answer is no, according to “Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife In Two Longitudinal Studies” — a paper recently published in Developmental Psychology — based on data drawn from two longitudinal studies by University of Alberta researchers Nancy Galambos, Harvey Krahn, Matt Johnson and their team.

Contrary to previous cross-sectional studies of life-span happiness, this new longitudinal data suggests happiness does not stall in midlife, but instead is part of an upward trajectory beginning in our teens and early twenties. And, according to Galambos and Krahn — award-winning Faculty of Arts researchers — this study is far more reliable than the research that came before it.

“I’m not trashing cross-sectional research, but if you want to see how people change as they get older, you have to measure the same individuals over time,” sociologist Krahn said.

The team followed two cohorts — one of Canadian high school seniors from ages 18 — 43 and the other a group of university seniors from ages 23-37. Both showed happiness increased into the 30s, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. After accounting for variations in participants’ lives, such as changes in marital status and employment, both samples still demonstrated a general rise in happiness after high school and university.

Psychology professor Nancy Galambos — first author on the study — says it’s crucial information, because happiness is important. It’s associated with life span and overall well-being.

“We want people to be happier so that they have an easier life trajectory,” she said. “And also they cost less to the health system, and society.”


“Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife In Two Longitudinal Studies” by Nancy Galambos (Psychology), Shichen Fang (doctoral student/Psychology), Harvey Krahn (Sociology), Matthew Johnson (Human Ecology) and Margie Lachman (Brandeis University) was initially published online in Developmental Psychology on September 7, 2015. Researchers attribute the difference in results from other studies of life span happiness to longitudinal data, and find past efforts to report on the trajectory of life span happiness to be fundamentally flawed.

Additional Factoids

  • People are happier in their early 40s (midlife) than they were at age 18
  • Happiness rises fastest between age 18 and well into the 30s
  • Happiness is higher in years when people are married and in better physical health, and lower in years when people are unemployed
  • The rise in happiness between the teens and early 40s is not consistent with a midlife crisis
  • The rise in happiness to midlife refutes the purported “u-bend” in happiness, which assumes that happiness declines between the teens and the 40s

Abstract of the paper:

Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18–43 and university seniors followed from ages 23–37. Happiness increased into the 30s in both samples, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. The rise in happiness after high school and university remained after controlling for important baseline covariates (gender, parents’ education, grades, self-esteem), time-varying covariates known to be associated with happiness (marital status, unemployment, self-rated physical health), and number of waves of participation. The upward trend in happiness runs counter to some previous cross-sectional research claiming a high point in happiness in the late teens, decreasing into midlife. As cross-sectional designs do not assess within-person change, longitudinal studies are necessary for drawing accurate conclusions about patterns of change in happiness across the life span.

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