Jeroen Janssen shared this new meta-analysis on flipped classroom that he wrote together with his colleagues in which they quantitatively synthesized the results of 114 studies about the effects of FTC on learning outcomes and student satisfaction with 95% of the studies used video for flipped classroom.
What are the main insights:
- Meta-analysis shows a small effect of flipped classrooms on learning outcomes (k = 114).
- Meta-analysis shows no effect of flipped classrooms on student satisfaction (k = 22).
- Flipped classrooms achieved higher learning outcomes when the face-to-face class time was not reduced.
- Flipped classrooms achieved higher learning outcomes when quizzes were added in their design
In general, we can conclude that students in flipped classrooms achieve significantly higher assessed learning outcomes than students in traditional classrooms, and are equally satisfied with the learning environment. The main implication following our results is that flipped classrooms are worth implementing. Careful attention should be paid, however, to the design of the flipped classroom as simply flipping before and during classroom activities might be not enough. The significant heterogeneity in the effect sizes of the studies means that it matters how flipped classrooms are implemented.
Abstract of the study:
In a flipped classroom, students study instructional material before class and apply this material during class. To provide a statistical synthesis of current research on effects of flipped classrooms, we conducted meta-analyses that included 114 studies which compared flipped and non-flipped classrooms in secondary and postsecondary education. We found a small positive effect on learning outcomes, but no effect was found on student satisfaction regarding the learning environment. In addition, we found considerable heterogeneity between studies. Moderator analyses showed that students in flipped classrooms achieve higher learning outcomes when the face-to-face class time was not reduced compared to non-flipped classrooms, or when quizzes were added in the flipped classrooms. We conclude that a flipping the classroom (FTC) approach is a promising pedagogical approach when appropriately designed. Our results provide insights into effective instructional FTC design characteristics that support an evidence-informed application of FTC.