This study shares practical insights that sometimes have been known for a while in the science of science communication, such as the importance of language that is easier to process, which can encourage continued reading. But the study also adds some other elements that can help to keep reading: a language that evokes anxious, exciting, and hopeful emotions.
From the press release:
Researchers from University of Pennsylvania, University or Maryland, and Emory University published a new Journal of Marketing article that examines how and why the language used in content engages readers.
The study, forthcoming in the Journal of Marketing, is titled “What Holds Attention? Linguistic Drivers of Engagement” and is authored by Jonah Berger, Wendy W. Moe, and David A. Schweidel.
Everyone wants to hold an audience’s attention. Brands want consumers to watch their ads, leaders want employees to read their emails, and teachers want students to listen to their lectures.
Similarly, media companies want readers to consume more content. The reason is simple: The further down a news story readers read, the more advertising revenue that article generates; the longer audiences spend watching videos, the higher the rate brands can command. And the more a piece of content holds attention, the more consumers learn about the product, service, or issue discussed.
Why do some articles captivate readers and encourage them to keep reading, while others make them lose interest after just a few sentences? And how does the content (i.e., the language used) shape whether audiences stay engaged? This study addresses these questions by utilizing natural language processing of over 600,000 reading sessions from 35,000 pieces of content, combined with controlled experiments.
Sustained Attention vs. Clickbait
It is important to distinguish sustained attention from other types of engagement. One way of measuring engagement is clicks, views, or other such metrics that measure how many people were exposed to a piece of content. As Berger explains, “While prior research has examined how headlines or advertisements attract attention, we wish to explore how the content is able to hold a reader’s attention. Focusing on short-term metrics like views and clicks can lead to clickbait or headlines that attract attention, but it does not necessarily lead to content being consumed.”
Companies such as YouTube and Facebook use measures like “dwell time,” or how long users spend consuming a piece of content, to better measure engagement, estimate relevance, and improve rankings and recommendations. A catchy headline might lead readers to click on a link, for example, but once they open the article, how much of it do they actually read? Do they stop after the first few sentences? Do they persist for most of the article? Holding attention refers to whether content retains the attracted attention, keeping audiences engaged.
“Our study shows that language that is easier to process encourages continued reading, as does language that evokes emotion,” says Moe. But not all emotional language has the same impact. Instead, these effects are driven by the degree to which different discrete emotions evoke arousal and uncertainty. “Consistent with this, language that is anxious, exciting, and hopeful encourages reading while language that is sad discourages it,” adds Schweidel. A simulation highlights the implications of these findings for content recommendation algorithms trained to sustain attention.
Managerial Implications and Lessons
The study offers four main lessons for chief marketing officers:
- It deepens understanding around what holds attention. While some research has examined what attracts attention or what drives word of mouth, there has been less focus on how language sustains attention or makes people consume more content once they have started. This study demonstrates the important role of emotional language and shows how different linguistic features shape content consumption.
- The findings help improve content design for advertisers, marketers, publishers, and presenters. Since content creators do not just want clicks, the researches show how simple shifts in language can encourage sustained attention. Further, while it is often assumed that certain topics are just better at keeping people engaged (e.g., celebrity gossip rather than financial literacy), they show how writing in certain ways can increase sustained attention, even for “less engaging” topics.
- The results highlight that what holds attention is not always the same as what grabs attention or encourages word of mouth. While more certain language can increase likes and shares, emotions that make people feel certain are actually detrimental when it comes to sustaining attention. While some have argued that content that requires more cognitive processing should increase clicks, the study shows that content that requires more processing has the opposite effect when it comes to holding attention. Retaining attention is a different type of engagement, and findings from one type of engagement may not necessarily carry over to others. Consequently, when developing content, managers should think carefully about which outcomes they care most about and design the content with that in mind.
- Because online content consumption has become a critical social issue, the findings have important social implications. Disinformation and hate speech have been linked to negative outcomes for individuals as well as society and our results highlight language’s critical role in this process. If angry and anxious content holds attention, as the simulation shows, training algorithms to maximize sustained attention may lead this content to be recommended, with potentially negative implications for consumer welfare.
From advertisers and marketers to salespeople and leaders, everyone wants to hold attention. They want to make ads, pitches, presentations, and content that captivates audiences and keeps them engaged. But not all content has that effect. What makes some content more engaging? A multi-method investigation combines controlled experiments with natural language processing of 600,000 reading sessions from over 35,000 pieces of content to examine what types of language hold attention and why. Results demonstrate that linguistic features associated with processing ease (e.g., concrete or familiar words) and emotion both play an important role. Rather than simply being driven by valence, though, the effects of emotional language are driven by the degree to which different discrete emotions evoke arousal and uncertainty. Consistent with this, anxious, exciting, and hopeful language holds attention while sad language discourages it. Experimental evidence underscores emotional language’s causal impact and demonstrates the mediating role of uncertainty and arousal. The findings shed light on what holds attention, illustrates how content creators can generate more impactful content, and, as shown in a stylized simulation, have important societal implications for content recommendation algorithms.
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